Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. The highest lead and cadmium concentrations were obtained from German sausage
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Tea is one of the most common drinks in all over the world. Rapid urbanization and industrialization in recent decades has increased heavy metals in tea and other foods.
In this research, heavy metal contents such as lead Pbcadmium Cd and arsenic As were Determination of lead and cadmium contents in black tea samples cultivated in Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces in north of Iran and their tea infusions.
The mean level of Cd in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0. The mean level of As in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0. Heavy metals, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Tea Introduction Tea is one of the most common drinks in all over the world, which is produced from the leaves of a shrub Camellia sinensis[ 1 ].
About 18—20 billion cups of tea are consumed daily in the world [ 4 ]. Iran is a tea-producing country and relies on substantive imports to supplement its production to satisfy the considerable consumption needs. Iranians hold one of the highest per capita rates in tea consumption in the world, about1.
Approximately 34 thousand hectares of lands in Guilan and Mazandaran provinces have been cultured for tea, almost half of the dry tea interior production and the remainder comes from imports.
Most important source of nutrient uptake by leaf tea is from the medium [ 4 ]. Rapid urbanization and industrialization in recent decades has increased these metals in tea and other foods [ 10 ].
Plants receive these trace elements from growth media [ 11 ]; other sources include application of pesticides and fertilizers [ 12 ]. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cd and As create concerns for tea consumers.
In addition, fluoride concentration is usually very high in black tea [ 13 ]. Pb is a physiologic and neurological toxin that can affect several organs in the human body. Each country sets tolerable limit for Pb concentration in tea leaves.
Cd and Pb can reduce cognitive development and intellectual performance in children and damage kidneys and the reproductive system [ 14 ]. Cd is also identified to be carcinogenic, and has been related to lung and prostate cancer [ 15 ].
Arsenic is strongly related with lung and skin cancer in humans, and may cause other interior cancers as well. Skin lesions, peripheral neuropathy, and anemia are characteristics of chronic arsenic intake.
Also, As is a major risk factor for black foot disease, which is caused by intake polluted ground water [ 16 ].
In a study the concentration of Aluminum was determined in black tea infusion samples [ 17 ]. Therefore, determination of these elemental compositions in tea and related products is very essential [ 18 ]. The main aim of this study was to investigate the quantity of Pb, As and Cd levels in tea samples that are cultivated in Guilan and Mazandaran provinces in north of Iran.
Materials and methods This study was carried out between September and November on tea samples that are cultivated in Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces in north of Iran Figure 1.
Guilan and Mazandaran have a humid temperate climate with enough annual precipitation. The amount of each sample was about g.prepared for lead and cadmium determination (Figure S1). Kohl was sold in powder form in black, grey, brown, reddish brown and silver color, and it was also available in natural unprocessed form as .
Zinc -- Determination of lead and cadmium contents -- Polarographic method The method is applicable to Zn 99,, Zn 99,99 and Zn 99, Although these types of zinc do not normally contain any thallium or indium, these two elements, if present, can interfere in this determination.
lead, cadmium and nickel contents of some oral antidiabetic agents, antilipemic agents and nrt Two antilipemic agents (atorvastatin 20 mg), one products exported from USA and the other one from Germany were studied for evaluation of their trace levels of Pb, Cd and Ni content (Table 8).
ISO specifies a flame atomic absorption spectrometric and inductively coupled plasma spectrometric method for the determination of the lead and cadmium contents in hardmetals. The method is applicable to products having lead and cadmium contents between 0, 1 % (mass fraction) and 0,1 % (mass fraction).
The metal contents in the samples, expressed in µg kg-1 wet weight, varied from to with an average value of for lead and from to with an average value of for cadmium. Tissues were homogenised and, g of dry weight sample was digested with 5 ml of HNO 3, for lead and cadmium determination, in Teflon vessels in microwave oven (ANTON PAAR closed vessel microwave digestion system, Graz, Austria).