The development of memory in children becomes evident within the first 2 to 3 years of a child's life as they show considerable advances in declarative memory. This enhancement continues into adolescence with major developments in short term memoryworking memorylong term memory and autobiographical memory.
Oral stage The first stage of psychosexual development is the oral stagespanning from birth until the age of one year, wherein the infant's mouth is the focus of libidinal gratification derived from the pleasure of feeding at the mother's breast, and from the oral exploration of his or her environment, i.
The id dominates, because neither the ego nor the super ego is yet fully developed, and, since the infant has no personality identityevery action is based upon the pleasure principle.
Nonetheless, the infantile ego is forming during the oral stage; two factors contribute to its formation: Yet, weaning increases the infant's self-awareness that he or she does not control the environment, and thus learns of delayed gratificationwhich leads to the formation of the capacities for independence awareness of the limits of the self and trust behaviors leading to gratification.
Erikson and Personal Psychosocial Stage. Renowned psychologist Erik Erikson is best known for his theory of psychosocial stages of personality development. Unlike Freud, Erikson’s theory spans a person’s entire lifespan, from childhood to old age. One of the main elements of Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory is the development of ego . 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. Autonomy versus shame and doubt is the second stage of Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. This stage occurs between the ages of 18 months to approximately 3 years. Erik H. Erikson's remarkable insights into the relationship of life history and history began with observations on a central stage of life: identity development in adolescence.
Yet, thwarting of the oral-stage — too much or too little gratification of desire — might lead to an oral-stage fixationcharacterised by passivity, gullibility, immaturity, unrealistic optimismwhich is manifested in a manipulative personality consequent to ego malformation.
In the case of too much gratification, the child does not learn that he or she does not control the environment, and that gratification is not always immediate, thereby forming an immature personality. In the case of too little gratification, the infant might become passive upon learning that gratification is not forthcoming, despite having produced the gratifying behavior.
Anal stage The second stage of psychosexual development is the anal stagespanning from the age of eighteen months to three years, wherein the infant's erogenous zone changes from the mouth the upper digestive tract to the anus the lower digestive tractwhile the ego formation continues. Toilet training is the child's key anal-stage experience, occurring at about the age of two years, and results in conflict between the id demanding immediate gratification and the ego demanding delayed gratification in eliminating bodily wastes, and handling related activities e.
The style of parenting influences the resolution of the id—ego conflict, which can be either gradual and psychologically uneventful, or which can be sudden and psychologically traumatic.
The ideal resolution of the id—ego conflict is in the child's adjusting to moderate parental demands that teach the value and importance of physical cleanliness and environmental order, thus producing a self-controlled adult.
Yet, if the parents make immoderate demands of the child, by over-emphasizing toilet training, it might lead to the development of a compulsive personalitya person too concerned with neatness and order.
If the child obeys the id, and the parents yield, he or she might develop a self-indulgent personality characterized by personal slovenliness and environmental disorder. If the parents respond to that, the child must comply, but might develop a weak sense of selfbecause it was the parents' will, and not the child's ego, which controlled the toilet training.
Phallic stage The third stage of psychosexual development is the phallic stagespanning the ages of three to six years, wherein the child's genitalia are his or her primary erogenous zone.
It is in this third infantile development stage that children become aware of their bodies, the bodies of other children, and the bodies of their parents; they gratify physical curiosity by undressing and exploring each other and their genitals, and so learn the physical sexual differences between "male" and "female" and the gender differences between "boy" and "girl".
In the phallic stage, a boy's decisive psychosexual experience is the Oedipus complexhis son—father competition for possession of mother. This psychological complex derives from the 5th-century BC Greek mythologic character Oedipuswho unwittingly killed his father, Laiusand sexually possessed his mother, Jocasta.
Analogously, in the phallic stage, a girl's decisive psychosexual experience is the Electra complexher daughter—mother competition for psychosexual possession of father. This psychological complex derives from the 5th-century BC Greek mythologic character Electrawho plotted matricidal revenge with Orestesher brother, against Clytemnestratheir mother, and Aegisthustheir stepfather, for their murder of Agamemnontheir father, cf.
Electraby Sophocles. Electra at the Tomb of Agamemnonby Frederic Leightonc. Despite mother being the parent who primarily gratifies the child's desires, the child begins forming a discrete sexual identity — "boy", "girl" — that alters the dynamics of the parent and child relationship; the parents become the focus of infantile libidinal energy.
The boy focuses his libido sexual desire upon his mother, and focuses jealousy and emotional rivalry against his father — because it is he who sleeps with mother. To facilitate uniting him with his mother, the boy's id wants to kill father as did Oedipusbut the ego, pragmatically based upon the reality principleknows that the father is the stronger of the two males competing to possess the one female.
Nevertheless, the boy remains ambivalent about his father's place in the family, which is manifested as fear of castration by the physically greater father; the fear is an irrational, subconscious manifestation of the infantile Id.
Whereas boys develop castration anxietygirls develop penis envy that is rooted in anatomic fact: As a result, the girl redirects her desire for sexual union upon father; thus, she progresses towards heterosexual femininity that culminates in bearing a child who replaces the absent penis.
Moreover, after the phallic stage, the girl's psychosexual development includes transferring her primary erogenous zone from the infantile clitoris to the adult vagina. Freud thus considered a girl's Oedipal conflict to be more emotionally intense than that of a boy, potentially resulting in a submissive woman of insecure personality.
In both sexes, defense mechanisms provide transitory resolutions of the conflict between the drives of the Id and the drives of the Ego. The first defense mechanism is repressionthe blocking of memories, emotional impulses, and ideas from the conscious mind; yet it does not resolve the Id—Ego conflict.Lastly, Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development by Erik Erikson was developed which encompassed the whole human life.
Each stage in his theory is presented with conflict whose success or failure impacts on the personality (Muzi, ).
Erik H. Erikson's remarkable insights into the relationship of life history and history began with observations on a central stage of life: identity development in adolescence.
The Criticisms of Kohlberg's Moral Development Stages - The Criticisms of Kohlberg's Moral Development Stages Part One:The criticisms of Kohlberg's moral development stages seem to center around three major points, his research methods, the "regression" of stage four, and finally his pfmlures.com first criticism that I would like to address is that of his research methods.
This is the Fred Rogers we know: a thin, wholesome man straight out of a small-town pulpit, with a gentle manner, who looks directly at us, speaks slowly and tells us that he likes us just the way we are.
This is the man Canadians have been watching since October , when Misterogers was a fifteen-minute black-and-white children’s program on the CBC that lasted nine months.
– Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice. – Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current pfmlures.comive Jean Piaget () A Swish developmental psychologist Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development focusses on how children acquire knowledge and learn.
Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages and Middle Childhood Development Essay - At the age of 6 years old, a child would most likely experienced the school system which would include pre-school and kindergarten.