Introduction to cryogens

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Introduction to cryogens

The cost-strength ratio is but one factor; others, such as welding and fabrication costs, have equal or greater bearing on final costs.

However, heat-treated carbon grades are often used for low-temperature services. Besides offering excellent low-temperature toughness plus fabricability, these grades are lower in initial cost.

Pipeline Steels for Low Temperature Uses Steels for natural gas pipelines must meet more demanding requirements than that used for oil.

Achieving low-temperature Introduction to cryogens toughness, grain size control, and low sulfur content were among major problems in developing the steel, particularly since economic feasibility had to be considered. Hot-rolled steels present a good opportunity to cut both cost and weight if the cost per unit strength could be reduced.

As strength of high-strength, low-alloy steels rise, toughness usually drops. In steel alloyed with molybdenum, manganese and columbium, which is use for these pipe-lines, molybdenum raises both strength and toughness. Carbon is reduced to make columbium more soluble, and to improve weldability and impact strength.

Steels with small and large amount of columbium have similar precipitation kinetics; higher strengths are produced by larger quantities of columbium. Columbium also promotes hardenability, which is needed to develop an acicular-ferrite microstructure. Manganese, along with molybdenum, helps to inhibit transformation to polygonal ferrite on the steel.

Where sulphur cannot be kept low, however, rare earth additions will control the shape of the sulfide inclusions. During hot working, grain refinement is enhanced because columbium has a grain-boundary pinning effect. This effect makes it possible to produce a highly substructured austenite prior transformation, which helps in assuring transformation to fine grained acicular ferrite.

Contributing to high strength and good impact resistance is the transformation mechanism - austenite changes to fine-grained acicular ferrite, which is further strengthened by the precipitation of columbium carbonitride.

Other advantages include good formability and most important, excellent weldability. Aside from pipeline, this steel can be used in the automotive, railroad, heavy equipment, construction and shipbuilding industries, application areas which the keynote is low cost per unit strength.

Because of their inherently good strength-toughness relationship, the manganese-molybdenum-columbium steels may well satisfy this requirement.

Introduction to cryogens

Covering a wide variety of property information, it is easy to find yield stress, tensile stress and elongation data for a huge number of materials within the database.

Enter the material of interest into the quick search field. Total Materia will generate the search list for you to select the material of interest from the material list. Click on the material of interest. On the subgroup page, click the Mechanical Properties link to view property data for the selected material.

The number of mechanical property data records is displayed in brackets next to the link. The mechanical properties data will be then be displayed along with all selected material information for your reference.Spray-freeze-drying: A novel process for the drying of foods and bioproducts.

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