Learning Principles Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning The following list presents the basic principles that underlie effective learning.
If the person has an attribution of ability internal, no control as soon as the individual experiences some difficulties in the learning process, he or she will decrease appropriate learning Students motivation.
If the person has an external attribution, then nothing the person can do will help that individual in a learning situation i.
In this case, there is nothing to be done by the individual when learning problems occur. The implication is that if we can create the appropriate amount of disequilibrium, this will in turn lead to the individual changing his or her behavior which in turn will lead to a change in thought patterns which in turn leads to more change in behavior.
Weiner points out that behavioral theories tend to focus on extrinsic motivation i. Thus, motivation is internal.
C- Cognitive Developmental Theories Stages of Cognitive Development Piaget,According to Piaget, children are motivated to develop their cognitive or mental abilities in a predictable set of stages: Sensorimotor stage Infancy, 0 to 2 years.
In this period which has 6 stagesintelligence is demonstrated through motor activity without the use of symbols. Children acquire object permanence at about 7 months of age memory.
Physical development mobility allows the child to begin developing new intellectual abilities. Some symbollic language abilities are developed at the end of this stage. Pre-operational stage Toddler and Early Childhood, years. In this period which has two substagesintelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed, but thinking is done in a nonlogical, nonreversable manner.
Egocentric thinking predominates Concrete operational stage Elementary and early adolescence, years. In this stage characterized by 7 types of conservation: Operational thinking develops mental actions that are reversible.
In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Early in the period there is a return to egocentric thought. It is also recommended that teachers use a wide variety of concrete experiences to motivate the child e.
As learners become more proficient, able to complete tasks on their own that they could not initially do without assistance, the guidance can be withdrawn. The main drive to do well comes from avoiding a negative outcome rather than approaching a positive one.
In the context of school learning, which involves operating in a relatively structured environment, students with mastery goals outperform students with either performance or social goals. However, in life success, it seems critical that individuals have all three types of goals in order to be very successful.
One aspect of this theory is that individuals are motivated to either avoid failure more often associated with performance goals or achieve success more often associated with mastery goals.
In the former situation, the individual is more likely to select easy or difficult tasks, thereby either achieving success or having a good excuse for why failure occurred.
In the latter situation, the individual is more likely to select moderately difficult tasks which will provide an interesting challenge, but still keep the high expectations for success. E- Psychoanalytic Theories The psychoanalytic theories of motivation propose a variety of fundamental influences: Freud suggested that all action or behavior is a result of internal, biological instincts that are classified into two categories: Erikson and Sullivan proposed that interpersonal and social relationships are fundamental.Guide students to focus on their own improvement.
Adolescents' tendencies to compare themselves with their peers, which is exacerbated by grading and tracking practices at the secondary level, negatively influence their motivation for reading and writing in school .
Student motivation. In the educational arena, motivation can be defined as the student's desire to engage in a learning environment (Keller & Litchfield, ).The impact of motivation on students' academic achievements and learning outcomes has been addressed in several studies.
From these two charts, we can see that the students’ examination scores improved. On the one hand, compared with these level classes, students in class 2's average scores were in second place, which then moved to first place during the second term.
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires and pfmlures.comtion is also one's direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a pfmlures.com individual's motivation may be inspired by others or events (extrinsic motivation) or it may come from within the individual (intrinsic motivation).Motivation has been considered as one of the most important reasons that.
Motivating students is a challenge all members of the education community face. According to education professionals and experts on the subject, motivation is defined by a student's desire to participate in the learning process, supported by personal and external factors.
Teach Students How to Learn: Strategies You Can Incorporate Into Any Course to Improve Student Metacognition, Study Skills, and Motivation.