August 15, Social Media Conversations About Race How social media users see, share and discuss race and the rise of hashtags like BlackLivesMatter By Monica Anderson and Paul Hitlin Americans are increasingly turning to social media for news and political information and to encourage others to get involved with a cause or movement. Social media also can serve as an important venue where groups with common interests come together to share ideas and information. And at times, Twitter, Facebook and other social media sites can help users bring greater attention to issues through their collective voice. In recent years, these platforms have provided new arenas for national conversations about race and racial inequality.
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Abstract Research suggests that transgender people face high levels of discrimination in society, which may contribute to their disproportionate risk for poor health.
However, little is known about whether gender nonconformity, as a visible marker of one's stigmatized status as a transgender individual, heightens trans people's experiences with discrimination and, in turn, their health.
However, researchers have not examined whether gender nonconformity—as a visible and known marker of one's stigmatized status—shapes trans people's experiences with discrimination and health.
In this article, we use data from the landmark National Transgender Discrimination Survey NTDS to examine whether gender nonconforming transgender people face more discrimination and worse health than their gender conforming counterparts.
In particular, we examine three research questions. In other words, does transphobic discrimination help to explain why gender nonconforming transgender people may have worse health problems?
Taken together, our analyses highlight the role that gender nonconformity plays in transgender people's experiences with discrimination and poor health. Background The Lives of Transgender People We use the terms transgender people and trans people to refer to individuals whose gender identity and expression do not normatively align with their assigned sex.
Rather than a singular event, transitioning is generally a process that unfolds over time, taking anywhere from several months to several years. Transgender people are stigmatized in Western societies that are characterized by a binary gender system Lorber These societies do not offer a social space or societal recognition for individuals who identity with a sex other than the one assigned to them at birth Gagne and Tewksbury ; West and Zimmerman Because of this, trans people who decide to undergo gender transitioning often face major social, economic, and legal risks, including discrimination in both institutional and interactional arenas Gagne and Tewksbury Particularly alarming is that the majority of trans people report that they face discrimination within a number of social institutions e.
The Doing and Undoing of Gender Although the majority of trans people may face stigma in society, we do not yet know whether certain members of this population face more transphobic discrimination than others.
Transphobia takes the general form of prejudice and hostility toward the existence of transsexuality, but it may also be heightened in some social contexts if a person is more readily and frequently read as gender nonconforming.
It is important to note, however, that the social penalties for gender nonconformity do not stem from the individual failings of transgender people; rather, it is a social problem that takes its root in structures that do not permit gender nonconformity on the part of social actors.
Specifically, one may face ostracism in society if others assume that one's sex assignment at birth as male or femalegender identity subjective sense and labeling of one's own genderand gender expression social presentation of gender do not align see Pfeffer for a review.
Connell ; Pfeffer This problem is perhaps best exemplified when transgender people enter bathrooms that are not considered consistent with their perceived sex by social onlookers, which often leads to trans people experiencing harassment and bodily harm Halberstam ; Herman Within recent years, some scholars have argued that an overemphasis has been placed upon gender conformity, resulting in a tendency to ignore instances of gender resistance Deutsch ; Risman Those on this side of the debate argue that there is already evidence of degendering in society, offering the existence of transgender and genderqueer people as one such example Lorber ; Risman, Lorber, and Sherwood What is largely missing from this literature is an understanding of whether transgender people face more severe social consequences for being read as gender nonconforming.
We thus provide an empirical investigation of this and also offer an understanding of the health consequences of these dynamics. The primary theoretical aim of the minority stress framework is to illustrate how social environments contribute to the relatively poor health status of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people Meyer There is also evidence that trans people experience worse health than their cisgender i.
However, most of these studies have relied on fairly limited measures of discrimination, focusing primarily on workplace discrimination. Despite the possibility that gender nonconformity may exacerbate transphobic discrimination Gordon and Meyernone of these studies have examined the role that gender nonconformity plays in minority stress processes for trans people.
Gender Nonconformity as a Form of Stigma Visibility We extend the aforementioned line of research by considering whether transgender people who are more visibly stigmatized, by virtue of being read as transgender and gender nonconforming, face more discrimination and, in turn, worse health.
We define stigma visibility as the extent to which one holds a known, visible, conspicuous, and discredited stigmatized status. Most centrally, stigma visibility as a concept highlights the fact there are sometimes visible, conspicuous, and known markers on the body that reveal a person's stigmatized status to others.
Connell ; Kando Social networking is a tool used by people all around the world. Its purpose is to promote and aid communication. However, this type of technology might be . This finding confirms existing research in showing the impact of discrimination on mental health (Kessler et al., ; Pavalko et al., ; Ryff, Keyes, & Hughes, ; Todorova et al., ).
Furthermore, it extends such research by detailing the long-term impact of discrimination and especially by broadening understandings of this impact to the study of age-related bias.
Effects of Discrimination Discrimination has many harmful effects on society in the past and exists when individuals are treated unfairly because of their particular race, gender, age, ethnic group, physical disability, or religion.
Discrimination affects members of a society in many different ways, most of them negatively. For people who are being discriminated against, their quality of life and most likely their self-esteem suffer greatly.
People who discriminate against others run the risk of having legal proceedings brought. Discrimination and Disparities - Kindle edition by Thomas Sowell. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Discrimination and Disparities.
Heterosexism is a system of attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships. It can include the presumption that other people are heterosexual or that opposite-sex attractions and relationships are the only norm and therefore superior.
Although heterosexism is defined in the online editions of the .